Remediation: Anime and Manga

Remediation is the process of taking one type of media (commonly “old media”) and reshaping it into a different form of media. This holds true for Anime, which is the animated version of Manga. Manga is the common name for Japanese comic books, which are normally published in print form, but occasionally they can be read over the internet. Many popular Anime shows that have aired on TV were all based on these Manga comics, like Naruto, Yu-gi-oh!, Sailor Moon, and Pokemon. These Anime shows have the exact (of very similar) plot lines and character designs as their Manga’s, however the key difference between the two is that Anime incorporates many different forms of media, such as animation, sound, and music. Whereas Manga is the “old media” of print, Anime is the “new media” of television, hence the conclusion that Anime is the remediation of Manga.

Manga example:

Anime example:



  1. I loved Pokemon! I used to read the mangas all the time when I was a kid. Even though there were pictures on a page, I’d imagine it as a movie or a show in my head. I’d even go as far as to try and mimic voices in my head. The TV show made my own interpretation come to life, in a way, with a story, voices, etc., and when the movies came out, I’d say it remediated the TV show by extending the premise of the show into a longer version.

    To take it one further, the video games were another way of remediating the manga and the anime. It offered immediacy in that it put you into the position of being a Pokemon trainer (and following, roughly, the same story in the manga and anime). However, you could always tell you were playing a video game with the various interfaces the game had (menu, save option, etc.), making the hypermediate presence obvious.

    Great post! Stirred up childhood memories!

  2. Manga and anime are absolutely key examples of remediation; I’d be a little careful in clearly defining one as old or new forms of media, though, because in Japanese history, they both gained cultural dominance at around the same time. But as you’ve noticed, anime still remediates manga in interesting ways.

    Pokemon is another special case, as Nintendo deliberately designed it as a transmedia product: In Japan, the videogame came first, but plans for the cards, manga, and anime proceeded immediately. And in the rest of the world, they were released simultaneously. There’s still the process of remediation, as the various forms try to present themselves as “better,” but there’s also a level of intertextuality, where they all reinforce each other and the imaginary world they depict.

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